Rethinking the Role of Technical Experts in Pre-litigation Dispute Resolution

Thanh Do and David Ojala | Forum on Construction Law

Construction disputes do not always require an expert; however, an expert is typically sought if the dispute involves particularly technical or complex issues that a lay person (including counsel and triers of fact) cannot readily understand. When is the most appropriate time to call upon a technical expert in a construction dispute? Most will turn to technical experts only after the dispute has advanced to the point where damages are high and litigation or a more formal ADR process is the likely path to resolution. Many also believe that a technical expert is required mainly for testimony in court, and therefore, late appointment of an expert shortly before trial is the most economical decision, but in many cases this may not be true. It is becoming more and more common for attorneys to retain an expert early, and the pre-litigation phase is arguably the best time to do so.

Pre-litigation Phase

During a pre-litigation or claim preparation phase, a technical expert typically serves as a “consulting expert” for one of the parties in the dispute, someone who can help evaluate any technical issues in dispute and opine on the relative strengths and weaknesses of proposed claims or positions. Another way an expert may be involved is to serve as an “independent evaluator” or a member of a “dispute review board,” jointly appointed by the involved parties, to advise on the merits of each party’s position based on the position papers and supporting information provided by the parties. Regardless of the role the expert may take and by which party the expert is retained, this process usually kicks off “after the fact” that is, when the dispute has led to large damages and/or delays. In many cases, it may already be too late for the expert to show value because the parties may already have experienced a significant economic loss, both parties may share significant fault in the escalation, and neither party is likely to clearly prevail in a settlement or litigation.

Rather than wait until this point in the dispute, we have seen the dispute resolution process be more effective when parties like owners, construction managers, design-build entities, and others retain experts earlier, even before a claim is fully formulated and a formal dispute resolution process has begun. Ideally, this kicks off when the dispute is just starting to rear its head as a disagreement, damages may not be fully formed or realized just yet, and the sides may not yet be entrenched in their positions. In this situation, the technical expert serves as a neutral third party who can weigh in on the cause of a problem and help to mitigate or resolve it (such as by performing independent design peer-review and developing a remediation plan to address the identified problems) before it escalates into a full-blown dispute in need of trial, arbitration, or formal mediation.

In this role, the expert serves as a neutral fact finder, as well as a source of technical insight. The expert plays the role of an independent evaluator or a dispute review board member by hearing each side and weighing the merits of each position, but at the same time, gets more involved in the technical nuts and bolts like a consulting expert to get to the bottom of the cause. And ideally, rather than just stop at finding the cause of the problem, the expert becomes part of the solution by proposing ways to get things under control, and potentially avoid similar problems from arising during the remainder of the project. The use of an expert in this setting has the potential to be highly cost-effective because one of the objectives is to prevent escalation of the damages that initiated the dispute in the first place. If damages are low to begin with, and stay below reasonable cost contingency levels, there may be little sense in pursuing costly recovery. A skilled and amiable expert, combined with a measured facilitator (perhaps inside or outside counsel for the owner or construction manager), can also encourage all sides to engage in solving the problem collaboratively, which can further expedite the resolution and help heal the bruises of any initial finger pointing. It can turn what might have been a failure into a success story and a triumph of teamwork.

Case Study

As an example of this sort of early expert involvement, the author was engaged by a construction manager at risk to help resolve a pair of disagreements between the project structural engineer and steel subcontractor, both of which threatened increasingly large repair costs and delays. One dispute involved widespread, seemingly random weld cracking throughout the project, for which each side blamed the other, with proposed or attempted repairs (most failing) often reflecting this finger-pointing. The other dispute involved steel assemblies that were surveyed to be out of level after installation, alternately being blamed on improper design and improper fabrication. The author was given an opportunity to review relevant documents, tour the site, speak to both parties, and perform some analysis. The author was able to discover a pattern in the seemingly random weld cracking that allowed the engineer and fabricator to focus their attention and develop alternative weld procedures and details to repair existing cracks and prevent future cracks. They also performed an analysis and facilitated load testing and surveying of the questionable assemblies to show that the appearance of out-of-level assembly was a result of benign construction tolerance issues, avoiding the need for costly replacement or retrofit. The final result was cooperation between the engineer and steel subcontractor, a halt to the escalating repair costs and delays, and a much less painful process in the long run for all sides.

Food For Thought

Before implementing this strategy, there are several questions that the involved parties and their counsel might consider:

  • How should parties that propose this type of dispute resolution broach the subject to their at-odds colleagues?
  • Like the engagement of an independent evaluator or dispute review board, can this type of process be written into contracts or teaming agreements?
  • Should everyone involved have a say in selecting the technical expert, or a right to veto the proposed expert?
  • What agreements need to be in place to encourage open and honest cooperation in the resolution process while protecting the rights of each party should litigation occur down the road? Is the potential for reducing the damage of the dispute enough encouragement for the parties to participate openly?
  • What happens if the involved parties do not cooperate or willingly provide necessary information to the jointly appointed technical expert?
  • If negotiation is unsuccessful and the claim proceeds to subsequent proceedings, such as litigation, what role might the technical expert be able to take? Might they hold any liability?


Regardless of the potential challenges, this kind of early expert engagement has the potential to facilitate dispute resolution and is worth exploring further by consultants and attorneys, as it aims to help all involved parties toward a positive outcome and to minimize costs before they become excessive. For us experts who are also practicing designers, this is also an opportunity to take lessons learned and apply them to future projects, preventing future disputes and bringing a type of deep satisfaction that our more traditional expert engagements cannot quite match.

When one of your cases is in need of a construction expert, estimates, insurance appraisal or umpire services in defect or insurance disputes – please call Advise & Consult, Inc. at 888.684.8305, or email

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